BREAKING NEWS Minnesota will continue to ease restrictions at restaurants, gyms starting Wednesday Full Story

Remote desert powering electric car revolution

Article Image

Lithium is the key element for rechargeable batteries used in phones and Formula E cars. But where is it farmed and how? The answer lies in Chile.

Posted: Feb 10, 2020 12:20 PM
Updated: Feb 10, 2020 12:20 PM

Sleek and futuristic Formula E cars zoom through cityscapes across the globe at speeds of over 170 miles per hour, traveling from zero to 60 in just 2.8 seconds.

If electricity is the crucial "E" of Formula E that's because cars on the track are powered by a 200 kilowatt battery provided by McLaren Applied.

Last month the Formula E circus was in South America for the Santiago ePrix -- the city has been the noisy metropolitan home to Chile's Formula E race for three consecutive years. Seven hundred miles north of the capital is the utterly desolate Atacama desert and it's here that you find the source helping power Formula E.

Salt Flats

The sun beats down and punishes the landscape here, where the annual rainfall measures barely a few millimeters

This might seem a barren wasteland, but it's also home to one of the most valuable and crucial minerals to modern life: lithium.

It's a substance that's important because it allows the storage of energy in rechargeable batteries, which are used in homes, laptops, electric wheelchairs, solar energy panels -- and electric vehicles.

Chile has a lot of lithium. The South American country has been described as the "Saudi Arabia" of lithium owing to the rich reserves it holds in its salt flats.

Chile has about 48% of the world's lithium reserves -- almost all of which is in the salt flats of the Atacama Desert -- according to the Chilean government. The South American country is also responsible for producing 19% of the world's lithium output, according to the US Geological Survey.

American mining company Albemarle pays the local Chilean government to mine the salt flats for lithium. The salt flats under their control could produce enough lithium to build 1.2 million electric cars annually.

The process

High concentrations of lithium are found in a salty brine pumped 30 meters below the surface of the desert floor.

In a series of man-made lakes, the brine is "precipitated" -- a process that involves evaporating water and extracting secondary minerals from the brine over the course of 18 months.

For Albemarle, the initial solution extracted is about 0.2% lithium, but by the end of the process it is 6%.

The company then transports its lithium concentrate to a refinery in Antofagasta, a city 170 miles west of the desert.

From there, impurities are removed, before the concentrate is dried and then milled into a fine white powder.

It's a process not without controversy; the man-made lakes and evaporation of water have put the company under scrutiny.

Since water is critically limited, indigenous people in the region are fearful that the level of water needed to produce lithium -- up to half a million gallons per ton -- may cut into that supply.

In the Salar de Atacama specifically, mining uses 65% of the region's water.

"We do evaporate water in the process, and we've received criticism for that," Ellen Lenny-Pessagno, who manages the Albemarle operation in Chile, told CNN's Supercharged presenter Nicki Shields.

"The water that we evaporate is about 4,000 liters for the equivalent of making a Tesla 3.

"That's about the same as about 250 grams of beef, coffee beans for 30 cups of coffee and about a half a pair of jeans."

While that might the case, water used in the production of those goods doesn't have to be pumped into a desert from elsewhere.

Making the battery's life longer

Lenny-Pessagno stressed that despite the impact on the region, lithium batteries can have "very long" lives.

"The beauty of the Tesla 3 electric vehicle battery is that it'll last 10 years and it will have a second life as secondary storage," she said.

"So, a home that has solar panels can store that energy so that at night it still has energy. And then it will actually be recycled."

Research is being undertaken at the University of Chile to extend the life of a lithium battery.

"We talk about life of the battery itself (rather than the life of lithium) which is in the order of 1,000 cycles [charged and discharged] and actually that's part of our research, trying to change the chemistry so that the battery lasts longer," Marcos Orchard, a professor of electrical engineering told CNN.

The effects of this research are already being felt in Formula E. For the first four seasons of the championship, drivers had to change into a different car midway through the race due to a lack of battery power.

Since 2018, and the introduction of the Gen2 race car model, cars can last the whole race.

FIA President Jean Todt has recently reveled in the progress the sport has made already and the impact it will potentially have on society.

"Considering we started with two cars needed to finish a race and now, after five years, we can do it with just one is outstanding because we can demonstrate that motor racing is not only a show but also a laboratory.

"We don't want to have a car that looks like Formula One or Formula Two -- we want a car that looks well ahead."

Mexico City on February 15 is the next race on the Formula E calendar, and Todt is keen for the sport to continue growing.

"I've always said that Formula E is the category which must have the vision for the future," he said.

"Some people ask if it could be a competitor to Formula One but it's completely different -- it's in a class of its own."

Minnesota Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Confirmed Cases: 26980

Reported Deaths: 1159
CountyConfirmedDeaths
Hennepin9099657
Ramsey3351149
Stearns205614
Nobles15775
Anoka152779
Dakota144664
Washington70035
Olmsted68911
Rice5243
Kandiyohi5141
Scott4712
Clay44930
Mower4462
Wright3492
Todd3441
Sherburne2492
Carver2402
Benton1853
Steele1700
Freeborn1590
Blue Earth1490
Martin1355
St. Louis11914
Lyon1012
Unassigned9611
Pine930
Nicollet8811
Cottonwood820
Winona8115
Crow Wing815
Watonwan790
Carlton750
Goodhue736
Otter Tail731
Chisago691
Polk632
Itasca5610
Dodge540
Chippewa521
Morrison480
Le Sueur471
Douglas460
Meeker460
Becker440
Jackson420
Murray410
McLeod410
Isanti360
Pennington300
Waseca290
Mille Lacs241
Rock230
Faribault220
Wabasha200
Swift191
Beltrami180
Sibley170
Brown172
Fillmore171
Norman150
Pipestone130
Kanabec121
Aitkin120
Marshall120
Cass112
Big Stone110
Wilkin113
Wadena100
Pope100
Koochiching90
Redwood70
Yellow Medicine70
Renville70
Mahnomen61
Lincoln60
Red Lake40
Traverse40
Grant40
Clearwater30
Houston30
Hubbard30
Lac qui Parle30
Roseau30
Stevens10
Lake10
Kittson10

Iowa Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Confirmed Cases: 21114

Reported Deaths: 593
CountyConfirmedDeaths
Polk4614140
Woodbury286137
Black Hawk178849
Buena Vista10672
Linn97879
Dallas95226
Marshall91418
Wapello63615
Johnson6198
Muscatine56741
Crawford5512
Tama41129
Scott38510
Dubuque35921
Louisa35011
Pottawattamie31910
Sioux3060
Jasper26917
Wright2210
Washington1968
Warren1671
Plymouth1522
Story1311
Allamakee1204
Mahaska9913
Poweshiek928
Hamilton760
Webster741
Henry732
Boone720
Bremer716
Clarke690
Des Moines681
Taylor660
Clinton651
Guthrie553
Cedar501
Benton431
Cherokee410
Monroe415
Jones370
Shelby370
Osceola360
Jefferson360
Marion350
Dickinson350
Buchanan341
Iowa340
Clayton343
Cerro Gordo331
Madison292
Lee290
Sac280
Davis280
Emmet270
Fayette270
Clay270
Monona260
Harrison260
Hardin240
Lyon240
Winneshiek240
Lucas222
Mills200
Grundy200
Franklin200
Humboldt201
Pocahontas200
Delaware191
Floyd191
Hancock180
Appanoose173
Butler161
Kossuth160
Carroll151
Ida150
Greene150
Keokuk140
Jackson140
Page140
Audubon131
Cass130
Chickasaw130
Howard120
Winnebago110
Calhoun100
Union100
Van Buren90
Adair90
Montgomery92
Adams70
Palo Alto70
Ringgold40
Fremont40
Mitchell40
Worth30
Unassigned20
Wayne10
Decatur10
Rochester
Broken Clouds
63° wxIcon
Hi: 80° Lo: 57°
Feels Like: 63°
Mason City
Overcast
67° wxIcon
Hi: 83° Lo: 60°
Feels Like: 67°
Albert Lea
Scattered Clouds
64° wxIcon
Hi: 82° Lo: 60°
Feels Like: 64°
Austin
Scattered Clouds
64° wxIcon
Hi: 83° Lo: 61°
Feels Like: 64°
Charles City
Overcast
66° wxIcon
Hi: 84° Lo: 60°
Feels Like: 66°
Weekend looks nice
KIMT Radar
KIMT Eye in the sky

Latest Video

Image

Chris' PM Weather Forecast 6/5

Image

Gyms, fitness centers set to reopen

Image

Easing restrictions for MN restaurants and gyms

Image

Charles City vigil for George Floyd

Image

Hawkeye Harvest Foodbank partnership

Image

Next phase of Minnesota reopening

Image

Rental Assistance program for Rochester

Image

IA Care Homes Could Reopen to Visitors

Image

'Color Me Mine' Location Closes for Good

Image

Getting Your Fair Food Fix During the Pandemic

Community Events