Smoking featured in half of hip-hop videos, study finds

R&B and hip-hop have become the ...

Posted: Oct 15, 2018 4:10 PM
Updated: Oct 15, 2018 4:10 PM

R&B and hip-hop have become the most popular music in the United States, but their music videos might be sending a bad health message by prominently featuring smoking and vaping, according to a new study.

The study, published Monday in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine, looked at 796 videos featured on Billboard magazine's Hot R&B/Hip Hop songs list. Over five years, 460 of the videos featured smoking, either combustible or electronic, tobacco or marijuana. The proportion of these appearances each year ranged between 40.2% and 50.7% of the videos from 2013 to 2017.

Arts and entertainment

Business and industry sectors

Business, economy and trade

Controlled substances

Drugs and society

Electronic cigarettes

Marijuana

Marketing and advertising

Music

Music and dance

Musical styles

Rap and hip-hop music

Smoking

Society

Media industry

Music industry

The authors also divided the songs by popularity. In the most popular group, videos that have been viewed on YouTube and other streaming services from 112 million to 4 billion times, 49.7% showed either combustible or electronic smoking.

The authors noted that all of the videos they studied have been viewed a total of 39.5 billion times.

"These hip-hop music videos are showing tobacco and marijuana, and they're being viewed billions of times, mostly by teens and young adults, and this really increases the likelihood that these young people will start using or be interested in using tobacco and marijuana themselves," said Kristin Knutzen, one of the study's authors and a research project coordinator at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. She became interested in the topic after watching music videos and seeing brand placement for a vape.

Hand-rolled products, including cigarettes and blunts, appeared most frequently in the videos. In 2017, 24.4% of music videos contained such products. Brand placement of all combustible products, in which a specific product was shown, increased from zero in 2013 to 9.9% in 2017.

The use of electronic cigarettes in music videos also increased. In 2013, 12 of 191 music videos showed e-cigs, rising to 16 of 225 videos in 2017. Brand placement of electronic devices grew from 25% in 2013 to 87.5% in 2017.

Similar research has been conducted in the fields of movies and television, but "I don't think there's been a study of music videos that I can recall in recent years looking at tobacco," said Dan Romer, research director at the Annenberg Public Policy Center link at the University of Pennsylvania, who was not involved in the study.

Although the study's distinction between marijuana and tobacco products was not very clear, a point noted by both Romer and the authors, the presence of these products at all could be problematic.

"It's likely going to make kids and young adults more interested in experimenting with tobacco and marijuana, particularly when they see influential people, such as a rapper they admire, using the product. It's also decreasing the perceived riskiness of using the product," Knutzen said.

For Romer, another issue with the presence of these products was the possibility of product placement, a factor that was not included in the study.

If tobacco companies are purposely placing products in music videos, it turns into a form of marketing, which the US Food and Drug Administration has control over, Romer said.

Efforts have been made to both highlight and help prevent the impact of media appearances of tobacco and smoking products on youth and other audiences.

The Master Settlement Agreement of 1998 between US attorneys general and five major tobacco companies restricts the advertising, promotion and marketing of cigarettes. The surgeon general released a report in 2012 that showed a relationship between actors smoking in movies and the likelihood of youth smoking.

In 2015, the FDA started the Fresh Empire Campaign, aimed at reducing and preventing tobacco use among youths who identified with hip-hop culture.

None of the products shown in the videos was from a manufacturer that participated in the Master Settlement Agreement, according to the study.

Knutzen and her co-authors suggest that their findings could present an opportunity for the music industry to self-regulate. However, they note that previous efforts to do so have failed, and measures like the Recording Industry Association of America's parental advisory labels could entice youth rather than deter them.

However, these music videos could create conversation between parents and children. "It's an opportunity for parents, not to necessarily forbid their kids from watching this or listening to this but really to sit down with them and understand what they are watching and why it's important to them," Knutzen said.

Minnesota Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Confirmed Cases: 55947

Reported Deaths: 1654
CountyConfirmedDeaths
Hennepin17789819
Ramsey6861261
Dakota3942102
Anoka3327112
Stearns281720
Washington188643
Nobles17456
Olmsted162023
Scott136214
Mower10782
Rice9898
Blue Earth8485
Wright8015
Carver7692
Clay74340
Kandiyohi6701
Sherburne6387
St. Louis42719
Todd4182
Lyon4153
Freeborn3541
Steele3271
Nicollet30713
Benton3043
Watonwan2980
Winona24516
Crow Wing20613
Martin2035
Le Sueur1991
Beltrami1910
Chisago1761
Goodhue1758
Otter Tail1753
Cottonwood1710
Pipestone1439
Becker1421
McLeod1350
Unassigned13540
Douglas1290
Itasca12912
Polk1293
Waseca1280
Pine1260
Carlton1240
Dodge1220
Murray1221
Isanti1080
Chippewa971
Brown832
Meeker832
Morrison831
Faribault820
Sibley782
Wabasha780
Koochiching733
Rock730
Jackson700
Pennington701
Mille Lacs643
Fillmore610
Cass582
Renville585
Lincoln540
Swift521
Grant491
Yellow Medicine490
Roseau450
Houston400
Pope390
Norman340
Redwood300
Aitkin280
Hubbard280
Kanabec281
Marshall280
Wilkin283
Mahnomen231
Wadena230
Big Stone220
Red Lake190
Lake170
Stevens150
Clearwater140
Traverse100
Lac qui Parle60
Kittson40
Cook20
Lake of the Woods10

Iowa Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Confirmed Cases: 45592

Reported Deaths: 877
CountyConfirmedDeaths
Polk9709202
Woodbury364250
Black Hawk299762
Linn208987
Johnson191815
Dallas178735
Buena Vista178412
Scott159012
Dubuque152729
Marshall138324
Pottawattamie121223
Story111013
Wapello84531
Muscatine82448
Crawford7153
Webster7125
Sioux5932
Cerro Gordo58117
Tama53729
Warren5261
Jasper45424
Plymouth4438
Wright4411
Louisa37814
Dickinson3754
Clinton3123
Washington28710
Hamilton2391
Boone2282
Franklin2134
Bremer1877
Clarke1853
Carroll1811
Emmet1791
Clay1711
Hardin1660
Shelby1591
Marion1520
Allamakee1494
Poweshiek1468
Benton1421
Des Moines1392
Jackson1391
Mahaska13617
Guthrie1265
Floyd1242
Jones1231
Cedar1201
Hancock1162
Butler1132
Pocahontas1131
Henry1123
Buchanan1101
Lyon1000
Madison1002
Cherokee971
Clayton973
Harrison960
Taylor930
Lee923
Delaware901
Monona900
Humboldt891
Iowa881
Winneshiek821
Calhoun812
Mills810
Sac810
Fayette790
Jefferson780
Palo Alto780
Kossuth770
Osceola770
Mitchell760
Page740
Winnebago730
Grundy721
Union701
Monroe667
Worth610
Chickasaw500
Davis491
Howard480
Cass471
Appanoose433
Lucas434
Montgomery433
Greene380
Fremont360
Van Buren311
Keokuk301
Ida290
Audubon281
Decatur210
Ringgold211
Adair200
Adams160
Wayne151
Unassigned70
Rochester
Clear
57° wxIcon
Hi: 69° Lo: 47°
Feels Like: 57°
Mason City
Clear
58° wxIcon
Hi: 70° Lo: 48°
Feels Like: 58°
Albert Lea
Clear
57° wxIcon
Hi: 68° Lo: 48°
Feels Like: 57°
Austin
57° wxIcon
Hi: 70° Lo: 47°
Feels Like: 57°
Charles City
Clear
59° wxIcon
Hi: 68° Lo: 48°
Feels Like: 59°
Some more rain in the forecast
KIMT Radar
KIMT Eye in the sky

Latest Video

Image

Sara's 6pm Forecast - Monday

Image

Was the summer sports season a success in Iowa?

Image

Primary Election voter registration

Image

Religious Leaders Ask For Mask Mandate

Image

Extra Hands Free Enforcement

Image

Mask Up Rochester

Image

Community adapting to changes at Rochester parks

Image

Fire-related fatalities increase in Minnesota

Image

Sean's Weather 8/3

Image

Campaign signs in Albert Lea

Community Events