BREAKING NEWS Biden, Dems prevail as Senate OKs $1.9T virus relief bill Full Story

Mumps outbreaks linked to waning vaccine protection, study says

The MMR vaccine, given in two doses to children, protects against the measles, mumps and rubella. Yet the United Stat...

Posted: Mar 21, 2018 7:44 PM
Updated: Mar 21, 2018 7:44 PM

The MMR vaccine, given in two doses to children, protects against the measles, mumps and rubella. Yet the United States and Europe have seen more than a few outbreaks of mumps, a contagious viral disease, in the past couple of years.

This resurgence may be due to waning protection bestowed by the mumps portion of the vaccine, according to a new study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. A simple booster shot at age 18 could thwart future outbreaks, the Harvard researchers believe.

Up to 10% of mumps infections in teenagers or older people may cause complications

Given recommended doses of MMR vaccine, protection lasts on average 27 years

"The pattern we observed is a lot more consistent with what we would expect from a waning vaccine," said Joseph A. Lewnard, co-author of the study and a postdoctoral research fellow at Harvard's TH Chan School of Public Health. This is "a reassuring message" so far as it's a relatively simple problem to solve.

Searching for answers

Mumps, which is typically spread through saliva and mucus, causes fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite and the characteristic puffy cheeks and jaw from swollen salivary glands. In 1977, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to recommend two doses of the MMR vaccine for children.

For the new study, Lewnard and Yonatan Grad, assistant professor of immunology and infectious diseases at TH Chan, examined data from six separate mumps vaccine effectiveness studies conducted in the United States and Europe. Their goal was to understand the underlying reasons for a series of mumps outbreaks on college campuses since 2006.

These outbreaks are troubling for two reasons, Lewnard and Grad wrote.

First, up to 10% of mumps infections in teenagers or adults may cause severe complications, including deafness, meningitis and involvement of the testes or ovaries. Children who get sick with the mumps typically do not experience such severe symptoms.

Second, most recent mumps outbreaks have occurred among people who had received the recommended two vaccine doses.

The researchers wondered, is the vaccine less effective against emerging and circulating strains of the mumps virus? Or does the protection provided by the vaccine wane over time?

'Broad protection' against all strains

The new study showed the vaccine to be effective in providing "broad protection against all different strains of the mumps virus," Lewnard said. However, this protection did not last forever.

"We estimated that protection lasts on average 27 years," he said. "We estimate that about 25% of people will lose protection and be at risk for mumps in about eight years and that 50% will be at risk in about 19 years, and 75% of people will be at risk within 38 years. So the timing at which people lose protection can definitely vary individually."

In short, the mumps portion of the MMR induces a shorter-lasting immune system response than either the measles or the rubella components has shown in laboratory studies, Lewnard said.

Lewnard and Grad modeled options for when a booster shot should be administered to maximize protection and found that a booster dose around age 18 should be best, though it is unclear how long the additional protection might last.

"That's the age people are beginning to congregate," Lewnard said, whether on university campuses or in the military.

Outbreaks typically occur in congregate settings where there is crowding and close contact. In such places, saliva is transferred person to person due to coughing, sneezing, kissing and the sharing utensils, lipstick or cigarettes.

In fact, the military already has an existing policy of giving everyone an MMR dose when they come into basic training because, years ago, they had a similar problem with outbreaks, Lewnard said.

Just last year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices -- a panel of medical and public health experts who meet three times a year to offer vaccination guidance to the CDC -- recommended the use of a third "booster" shot of the MMR vaccine (even for people who are up to date on the recommended doses) during mumps outbreaks.

"This is a recommendation that is on the books that people should be aware of in case they are, for instance, at a college when an outbreak is reported," Lewnard said.

Infectious disease specialist Dr. William Schaffner said the new research "reinforces what we're doing already," namely, recommending a booster shot in situations of outbreaks.

'Milder' illness with the shot

College health authorities, in collaboration with local authorities, have given that additional dose of MMR during some recent outbreaks. "When you get in early, you find out it's confined to a sorority or just a football team, and you can identify a subgroup of students and vaccinate them and stop the outbreak very early," said Schaffner, who was not involved in the new research. "It doesn't turn it off like a switch -- so it is not a be all and end all -- but it is a contribution."

Yet there's an "underappreciated" fact about the MMR vaccine: Although it is not perfect in preventing illness completely, it does a good job preventing many complications, Schaffner said. "So your illness is milder, and this has been a striking feature of the mumps outbreaks that have been studied."

Among the unanswered questions, he said, is how long protection would last if people were given a booster shot. "That's a large unknown, and that's why, at the moment, the (immunization committee) has not recommended a third dose for everybody in adolescence."

Still, mumps outbreaks have happened "all across the country" and have been "noteworthy," he said. Communities or colleges that have experienced outbreaks have devoted substantial resources to defining the extent, identifying who needs to be vaccinated, educating people and creating quarantines.

"That's why it's become so much a matter of current discussion," Schaffner said, adding that the United States does a good job of vaccinating against the mumps. In fact, nearly 92% of infants receive their first shot of the MMR in the US, and compared with the pre-vaccine era, there has been a more than 99% decrease in mumps cases, according to the CDC.

In Europe, Israel and other places, he said, vaccination rates are not quite as high, and outbreaks of mumps still occur. Travelers may bring the mumps virus with them, so US officials have been working "diplomatically" to get other countries to be thorough with vaccinations, Schaffner said.

"The more all the countries of the world use the mumps vaccine effectively, the less mumps we'll all have -- even though the vaccine is not perfect," he said.

Minnesota Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 488170

Reported Deaths: 6602
CountyCasesDeaths
Hennepin1012851589
Ramsey43273808
Dakota36543394
Anoka33430390
Washington22183261
Stearns18786202
St. Louis14866265
Scott13381107
Wright12580116
Olmsted1184890
Sherburne877174
Carver783241
Clay694587
Rice672291
Blue Earth599635
Kandiyohi580674
Crow Wing522782
Chisago501045
Otter Tail485570
Benton449290
Winona420049
Mower410031
Douglas393768
Goodhue388069
Nobles387147
Polk344663
McLeod340550
Beltrami338751
Morrison326247
Itasca314246
Becker313942
Lyon313844
Isanti308256
Steele303011
Carlton300249
Freeborn285824
Pine282616
Nicollet261541
Todd249230
Brown247237
Le Sueur237420
Mille Lacs229047
Cass221024
Waseca210117
Meeker208134
Martin190629
Wabasha18713
Roseau180917
Hubbard160741
Houston158114
Dodge15384
Renville151640
Redwood147127
Fillmore13908
Pennington137716
Chippewa136835
Cottonwood135920
Wadena131320
Faribault124517
Aitkin119233
Watonwan11798
Sibley117610
Rock116114
Kanabec108119
Pipestone101824
Yellow Medicine97717
Murray9538
Jackson94210
Swift87818
Pope8095
Marshall78415
Stevens7468
Lake74218
Clearwater71914
Lac qui Parle68616
Wilkin67711
Koochiching62111
Big Stone5163
Lincoln5122
Grant4918
Norman4788
Unassigned44768
Mahnomen4437
Kittson40921
Red Lake3615
Traverse3105
Lake of the Woods2221
Cook1180

Iowa Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 336947

Reported Deaths: 5491
CountyCasesDeaths
Polk51993559
Linn19497317
Scott17149212
Black Hawk14956293
Woodbury13828214
Johnson1314875
Dubuque12444195
Dallas1021893
Pottawattamie9877146
Story963545
Warren514076
Clinton502184
Cerro Gordo500683
Webster495588
Sioux479869
Marshall464273
Des Moines427961
Muscatine425693
Buena Vista412637
Wapello4042110
Jasper387267
Plymouth368578
Lee354453
Marion341171
Jones285055
Henry279837
Bremer270255
Carroll266649
Crawford253535
Boone244030
Benton240854
Washington239247
Mahaska215746
Jackson209939
Dickinson204140
Tama202865
Kossuth198655
Delaware186140
Clay184425
Winneshiek183228
Fayette179235
Page177919
Buchanan177829
Wright174231
Hamilton173842
Cedar172723
Hardin169839
Harrison167670
Clayton160154
Butler159231
Mills148420
Floyd148141
Poweshiek148030
Cherokee146236
Lyon145541
Allamakee144148
Madison143018
Iowa140323
Hancock138030
Grundy132230
Winnebago130531
Calhoun129411
Cass129251
Jefferson128634
Appanoose123347
Louisa122444
Mitchell120540
Chickasaw119915
Union119131
Sac118718
Shelby117433
Emmet115440
Humboldt113725
Guthrie109628
Franklin109219
Palo Alto101321
Howard99522
Montgomery96936
Clarke95020
Keokuk92529
Monroe89828
Adair81529
Ida81532
Pocahontas80919
Davis76523
Monona76427
Greene73110
Lucas72121
Osceola68315
Worth6678
Unassigned6590
Taylor64112
Decatur5699
Fremont5599
Van Buren53718
Ringgold50620
Audubon4769
Wayne47121
Adams3184
Rochester/St. Mary'S
Clear
38° wxIcon
Hi: 49° Lo: 20°
Feels Like: 35°
Mason City
Partly Cloudy
35° wxIcon
Hi: 48° Lo: 28°
Feels Like: 28°
Albert Lea
Clear
36° wxIcon
Hi: 47° Lo: 27°
Feels Like: 30°
Austin
Partly Cloudy
34° wxIcon
Hi: 47° Lo: 26°
Feels Like: 30°
Charles City
Partly Cloudy
34° wxIcon
Hi: 47° Lo: 29°
Feels Like: 26°
Winds will pick up for Sunday
KIMT Radar
KIMT Eye in the sky

Community Events